The reproductive output of wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus has extentsively been investigated; nevertheless, it remains widely unexplored in the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated the reproductive history of female bottlenose dolphins in the Aeolian Archipelago (Italy). Thirteen years of photo-identification data were used to track the reproductive pattern of 7 females and their 16 calves. The birth period was accurately estimated within 1 mo for 6 calves (37.5%), peaking in June/July. The mean number of calves for females was 2.3 ± 1.1 (SD), ranging from 1 to 4. The mean interbirth interval was 3.5 ± 1.6 yr, ranging from 2 to 7 yr. The mean weaning age was 3.2 ± 0.6 yr, although 1 calf may have been weaned as late as its fifth birthday. Mother−calf postweaning associations were tracked for 9 calves and ranged from 4 to 10 yr of residence in the maternal group of the calf. The age of first pregnancy was 7.5 yr. The number of calves was influenced by the mean maternal group size, with females that were sighted in larger groups having more calves. However, the number of calves was not influenced by the strength of the associations of mothers with other females. Calf mortality by age 1 was high (12.5%). Two
juveniles also died postweaning within 6 yr of their birth. Finally, 2 females may have died during the study, as they were not re-sighted at the end of the study. Our results highlight the need to implement urgent conservation actions to protect this bottlenose dolphin population.